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Many patients with cancer will have some kind of surgery. Surgery may be used to perform a biopsy in order to obtain a specimen for determining an accurate diagnosis, to provide local treatment of the cancer and to obtain other information to help determine whether additional treatment is necessary. Surgical techniques continue to improve, and surgeries are now less invasive and often performed on an outpatient basis.
In order to diagnose a cancer, a physician will typically perform a biopsy of an area, lump or mass suspected of being cancer. During a biopsy, part or all of the suspected cancer is removed and cells contained in the sample are sent to a pathology laboratory to determine whether cancer is present. Other information obtained from the biopsy sample can play an important role in treatment decisions. If the biopsy indicates that cancer is present, additional tests to determine the stage of cancer will be performed. Surgery may be performed as part of the staging evaluation and/or as part of treatment after the patient and doctor determine the overall treatment plan.
The successful treatment of cancer often requires the involvement and coordination of several different treatment approaches. This is referred to as multimodality treatment and may consist of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. It is important to understand that surgery is a local treatment and can treat only the cancer cells removed during surgery. By the time a cancer is diagnosed, some patients will already have experienced the spread of cancer cells through the blood and lymph systems to other locations in the body. These cancer cells are referred to as micrometastases and currently available tests cannot always detect micrometastases. Information obtained during surgery and from other tests determines the likelihood of the cancer having spread and whether additional treatment with chemotherapy, radiation or hormonal therapy is necessary.